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Table 4 Care and outcome parameters of injured patients by subspecialty intervention: business hours 1 versus off hours 2

From: The off-hour effect on trauma patients requiring subspecialty intervention at a community hospital in Japan: a retrospective cohort study

Parameter ORIF TAE Laparotomy Craniotomy Thoracotomy
Business hours (n = 251) Off hours (n = 256) Business hours (n = 63) Off hours (n = 81) Business hours (n = 48) Off hours (n = 70) Business hours (n = 11) Off hours (n = 16) Business hours (n = 6) Off hours (n = 3)
Prehospital time (min) 49.1 ± 24.5 48.5 ± 23.8 54.9 ± 28.5 58.1 ± 28.1 53.9 ± 23.5 52.3 ± 28.7 38.1 ± 20.4 45.4 ± 22.0 49.0 ± 23.0 35.3 ± 10.1
ER stay (min) 156.5 ± 82.7 153.8 ± 71.0 108.0 ± 66.4 131.6 ± 61.3*** 127.4 ± 71.6 126.3 ± 60.1 142.4 ± 63.0 149.3 ± 54.7 81.5 ± 43.3 156.3 ± 56.3
Total time to OR (min) 205.6 ± 87.3 202.3 ± 73.0 162.9 ± 73.1 189.7 ± 63.1*** 181.3 ± 70.7 178.5 ± 63.1 180.5 ± 60.1 194.7 ± 48.9 130.5 ± 61.1 191.7 ± 50.0
Mortality, n (%) 2 (0.80) 2 (0.78) 14 (22.2) 15 (18.5) 6 (12.5) 15 (21.4) 6 (54.5) 0 (0.0)** 4 (66.7) 2 (66.7)
Unexpected trauma death, n (%) 1/247 (0.40) 1/249 (0.40) 4/45 (8.9) 5/63 (7.9) 2/40 (5.0) 10/62 (16.1) 2/6 (33.3) 0/14 (0.0) 3/4 (75.0) 2/3 (66.7)
Good recovery, n (%) 232 (92.4) 237 (92.6) 45 (71.4) 57 (70.4) 35 (72.9) 53 (75.7) 5 (45.5) 13 (81.3) 1 (16.7) 1 (33.3)
Adverse events in the ER, n (%) 11 (4.4) 26 (10.2)* 14 (22.2) 19 (23.5) 5 (10.4) 13 (18.6) 2 (18.2) 1 (6.3) 1 (16.7) 1 (33.3)
  1. 18:01 AM to 6:00 PM weekdays.
  2. 26:01 PM to 8:00 AM weekdays plus all weekend hours.
  3. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  4. ASA-PS, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; ER, emergency room; ISS, Injury Severity Score; OR, operating room; ORIF, open reduction with internal fixation; Ps, Probability of survival; RTS, Revised Trauma Score; TAE, transarterial embolization.