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Table 3 Pooled results of overall wound complications for potential risk factors

From: Risk factors for wound complications of closed calcaneal fractures after surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Potential risk factors No. of studies Exposed group Non-exposed group Pooled OR 95% CI P value I 2
Female 4 66/299 142/618 0.83 0.42-1.87 0.59 65%
Surgery timing (d) >14 (vs.14) 3 32/135 48/188 0.86 0.51-1.46 0.58 0%
Bone graft 4 54/252 117/730 1.74 1.17-2.59 0.007 49%
Smoking 10 180/681 169/963 1.90 0.97-3.30 0.06 80%
Hypertension 2 22/114 82/384 0.92 0.54-1.56 0.75 0%
Sanders classification (II.III/IV) 4 37/98 134/707 3.31 2.02-5.44 <0.00001 0%
Diabetes 4 20/33 94/367 9.97 4.43-23.50 <0.00001 0%
Drinking 2 26/107 48/142 0.85 0.19-3.76 0.83 55%
No drainage 2 63/268 15/162 5.68 2.91-11.09 <0.00001 0%
Female 4 66/299 142/618 0.83 0.42-1.87 0.59 65%