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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Risk factors for wound complications of closed calcaneal fractures after surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Publication year Country Study design Group size (fractures) Total patients (fractures) Major complications (fractures) Average age (years) Operative approach Closure method Follow-up period (months)
Case Control
Wu [14] 2014 China Case–control study 21 218 209 (239) 0 37.6 L-shaped lateral 2 layer NA
Soni [15] 2014 UK Retrospective cohort study 10 59 69 (69) 2 38.0 L-shaped lateral 2 layer NA
Backes [22] 2014 Netherlands Case-control study 57 134 191 (191) 19 NA Extended lateral 1 layer/2 layer >12.0
Ding [16] 2013 China Case-control study 87 413 479 (490) 59 45.0 L-shaped lateral 2 layer 14.2
Hao [17] 2013 China Case-control study 17 46 58 (63) 3 35.0 L-shaped lateral 2 layer 12.0
Court-Brown [21] 2009 UK Case-control study 45 133 178 (178) 10 41.0 Extended lateral NA NA
Koski [18] 2005 Finland Case-control study 35 113 126 (148) 20 39.8 L-shaped lateral 2 layer 10.7
Assous [23] 2001 UK Retrospective cohort study 13 27 40 (40) 0 35.0 NA NA 27.0
Al-Mudhaffar [19] 2000 UK Case-control study 6 27 30 (33) 2 41.0 NA 2 layer 48.0
Folk [20] 1999 USA Case-control study 58 132 179 (190) 40 35.0 L-shaped lateral 2 layer NA
Total -- -- -- 349 1302 1559 (1651) 155 40.4 -- -- --
  1. NA, not available; major complications included deep infection, osteomyelitis, and operative debridement, etc.