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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies comparing standard medical treatment with supplementary CPAP or NIV

From: Continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation in prehospital treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure: a systematic review of controlled studies

Study Study Country Intervention Study design Number of patients (N) Crude mortality rates Type of patients Primary outcome Primary result Primary review outcomes
secondary outcome(s) secondary result(s)
Cheskes et al. [16] Canada CPAP Observational, before-and-after 214 Interventions 17/214 ARF of any cause Mortality, in-hospital 7.9% vs. 7.5% (p=0.85) Mortality: →
H-LOS: N/R
228 Controls 17/228
ICU-LOS: N/R
IR: →
intubation rate 14.5% vs. 12.7% (p=0.59)
Dib et al. [27] USA CPAP Retrospective, controlled 149 Interventions N/R Presumed ACPE Prehospital treatment times 30 vs. 31 min (p > 0.01) Mortality: N/R
H-LOS: N/R
ICU-LOS: N/R
IR: ↓
238 Controls N/R clinical variables intubation rate improvement (p’s <0.01) 2.6% vs. 4.6% (p<0.01)
Ducros et al. [30] France CPAP Randomized, controlled multicentre 107 Interventions 8/107 Presumed ACPE Combined criteria (successful) Odds ratio 2.1 (1.2-4.0) Mortality: →
H-LOS: N/R
ICU-LOS:→
IR: →
100 Controls 9/100 Mortality, 48 hours mortality, in hospital Intensive care unit length-of-stay odds ratio 1.4 (0.4-5.2) odds ratio 0.9 (0.4-2.5) 2 vs. 2 days (p=0.67)
Frontin et al. [28] France CPAP Randomized, controlled 62 Interventions 6/60 Presumed ACPE Treatment success Odds ratio 1.19 (0.56-2.53) Mortality: →
H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: →
IR: →
62 Controls 7/62 Intubation rate hospital length-of-stay Intensive care unit length-of-stay mortality, 30 days odds ratio 1,47 (0.23-9.23) 6 vs. 6 days (p=0,5) 8,2 vs. 8 hours (p=0,27) odds ratio 1.14 (0.36-3.65)
Gardtman et al. [22] Sweden CPAP Observational, before-and-after 158 Interventions 18/158 Presumed ACPE ACPE at admission 76% vs. 93% (p<0.0001) Mortality: →
158 Controls 18/158 mortality, 1 year 22% vs. 27% (p=0.64) H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: N/A
IR: N/A
Garuti et al. [25] Italy CPAP Prospective, observational with historical control group 35 Interventions 1/35 ARF of any cause Mortality, adjusted Odds ratio 0.06 (0.01-0.53) Mortality: →
125 Controls 30/125 intubation rate hospital length-of-stay no intubations 12 vs. 18.8 days (p<0.0001) H-LOS: ↓
ICU-LOS: N/A
IR: →
Hubble et al. [24] USA CPAP Prospective, demographically controlled 120 Interventions 95 Controls 5.35% Presumed ACPE Intubation rate Odds ratio 4.04 (1.64-9.95) Mortality: ↓
23.15% mortality, in hospital hospital length-of-stay odds ratio 7.48 (1.96-28.54) 5.58 vs. 7.66 days (p=0.755) H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: N/A
IR: ↓
Thompson et al. [23] Canada CPAP Randomized, controlled 35 Interventions 5/35 ARF of any cause Intubation rate Odds ratio 0.16 (0.04-0.7) Mortality: ↓
34 Controls 12/34 mortality, in hospital Intensive care unit length-of-stay hospital length-of-stay 0.3 (0.09-0.99) 6.5 vs. 3 days 9 vs. 3 days H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: →
IR: ↓
Craven et al. [29] USA NIV Prospective, demographically controlled 37 Interventions 6/37 Presumed ACPE Out of hospital treatment time 31.4 vs. 31.2 min (p=0.931) Mortality:→
25 Controls 2/24 improvement in SpO2 hospital length-of-stay mortality, in-hospital 13.71% vs. 6.99% (p=0.037) 6.34 vs. 7.63 (p=0.48) 6/37 vs. 2/24 (p=0.462) H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: N/R
IR: →
Roessler et al. [20] Germany NIV Randomized, controlled 25 Interventions 1/24 ARF of any cause Efficiency of treatment 100% vs. 80% (p=0.05) Mortality: →
26 Controls 2/25 survival, 28 days intensive care unit length-of-stay hospital length-of-stay intubation rate 96% vs. 92% (p=1.0) 13.9 vs. 17.4 days (p=0,5) 1.3 vs. 3.7 days (p=0.03) 1 vs. 6 (p=0.66) H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: ↓
IR: →
Schmidbauer et al. [21] Germany NIV Randomized, controlled 18 Interventions 0/18 Presumed COPD Dyspnea score Improvement (p<0.001) Mortality: -
18 Controls 0/18 respiration rate other clinical variables Intensive care unit length-of-stay improvement (p=0.001) No diff in other clinical variables 59 vs. 185 (p=0.02) H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: ↓
IR: →
Weitz et al. [26] Germany NIV Randomized, controlled 10 Interventions 1/10 Presumed ACPE SpO2 at hospital admission 97.3% vs. 89.5% (p=0.002) Mortality: →
13 Controls 1/13 clinical variables Intensive care unit length-of-stay hospital length-of-stay No diff clinical variables 1.70.5 vs. 2.30.6 days 8.22.3 vs. 12.51.8 days H-LOS: →
ICU-LOS: →
IR: N/A
  1. All comparisons are intervention vs. control. Arrows showing; no difference →, improvement/reduction ↓.
  2. (Continuous positive airway pressure, CPAP; Positive pressure ventilation, PPV; Acute respiratory failure, ARF; Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, ACPE; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD; Intubation rate, IR; Mortality in-hospital, IHM; Oxygen saturation, SpO2; Respiration rate, RR; Clinical variables, CV; Not Available, N/A; Not Reported, N/R; Hospital Length Of Stay, H-LOS; Intensive Care Length Of Stay, ICU-LOS.