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Table 3 Predictors effects on outcomes in the prognostic models and in the refitted models on INRO-PH validation dataset (Odds Ratios)

From: Performance of IMPACT, CRASH and Nijmegen models in predicting six month outcome of patients with severe or moderate TBI: an external validation study

Variable Measure or Category IMPACT Core (mortality) IMPACT Core (unfavourable) IMPACT Extended (mortality) IMPACT Extended (unfavourable) Crash basic (mortality) Crash basic (unfavourable) Nijmegen DCM (mortality) Nijmegen DCM (unfavourable)
M R M R M R M R M R M R M R M R
Age, years > 16 OR per year 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.03 1.04 - - - - 1.06 1.06 1.05 1.04
Age, years >40 OR per year - - - - - - - - 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.07 - - - -
GCS OR per point increase - - - - - - - - 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Motor GCS None (1) 4.3 3.9 4.0 3.4 3.3 2.1 3.4 2.5 - - - - - - - -
Extension (2) 4.0 4.7 8.0 2.7 3.3 2.7 6.4 2.3 - - - - - - - -
Abnormal flexion (3) 2.2 2.2 3.5 2.1 2.1 1.7 3.3 1.5 - - - - - - - -
Normal flexion (4) 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.2 - - - - - - - -
Localizes/obeys (5/6) Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref - - - - - - - -
Untestable / missing (9) 1.7 3.9 2.4 3.3 1.5 1.9 2.3 1.6 - - - - - - - -
Pupillary reactivity Both pupils reactive Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
One pupil reactive 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6 3.1 1.2 2.6 1.1 1.9 1.14 1.8 1.2
No pupil reactive 3.4 15.5 3.4 8.9 2.6 10.2 2.7 5.2 5.3 12.2 3.3 7.7 13.2 15.3 10.9 9.3
Major extra-cranial injury Yes -   - - - - - - 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.1 - - - -
Hypoxia Yes or suspected -   - - 1.3 2.1 1.4 2.2 - - - - - - - -
Hypotension Yes or suspected -   - - 2.0 2.4 1.9 2.1 - - - - 2.2 1.5 3.1 2.0
CT classification Diffuse injury (I) -   - - 0.7 0.6 1.7 0.5 - - - - - - - -
Diffuse injury (II) -   - - Ref Ref Ref Ref - - - - - - - -
Diffuse injury (III/IV) -   - - 2.2 5.3 1.7 2.7 - - - - - - - -
Mass lesion evacuated or non-evacuated (V/VI) -   - - 1.9 6.4 1.6 6.5 - - - - - - - -
tSAH Yes -   - - 1.8 1.4 1.8 1.3 - - - - - - - -
EDH Yes -   - - 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 - - - - - - - -
  1. M = model; R = refitted; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; tSAH = Traumatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; EDH = Epidural Hematoma; Ref = reference category; OR = odds ratio.