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Table 1 Description of prognostic models used in the validation study and their development characteristics

From: Performance of IMPACT, CRASH and Nijmegen models in predicting six month outcome of patients with severe or moderate TBI: an external validation study

Model N at development Development setting Data collection period Predictors used in model Outcome measures
IMPACT Core 8,509 8 RCTs, 3 observational studies, multi-centre, multi-country 1984-1997 Age, GCS motor score, pupillary reactivity 6 month mortality, 6 month unfavourable outcome
IMPACT extended Core model predictors and CT classification, hypoxia, hypotension, tSAH, EDH
CRASH basic 10,008 RCT, multi-centre, multi-country 1999-2004 Age, GCS, pupillary reactivity, presence of major extra-cranial injury 14 day mortality, 6 month unfavourable outcome
Nijmegen Clinical and demographic 700 Observational study, single centre (Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) 1998-2006 Age, pupil s reactivity, GCS, hypotension 6 month mortality, 6 month unfavourable outcome
  1. RCT = Randomized Clinical Trial; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; CT = Computed Tomography; tSAH = Traumatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; EDH = Epidural hematoma.