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Table 2 Associated injuries of hospitalized elderly and adult patients in fall accidents

From: Geriatric hospitalizations in fall-related injuries

Fall accident
Variable Elderly Adult p
N = 2403 N = 1909
Head trauma, n (%)      
  Neurologic deficit+ 1 (0.04) 10 (0.5) 0.002
  Cranial fracture+ 51 (2.1) 81 (4.2) <0.001
  Epidural hematoma (EDH)+ 36 (1.5) 60 (3.1) <0.001
  Subdural hematoma (SDH)* 242 (10.1) 156 (8.2) 0.032
  Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 134 (5.6) 128 (6.7) 0.123
  Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) 49 (2.0) 28 (1.5) 0.159
  Cerebral contusion 104 (4.3) 95 (5.0) 0.313
  Cervical vertebral fracture+ 16 (0.7) 29 (1.5) 0.006
Maxillofacial trauma, n (%)      
  Maxillary fracture+ 20 (0.8) 47 (2.5) <0.001
  Mandibular fracture+ 2 (0.1) 20 (1.0) <0.001
  Orbital fracture+ 5 (0.2) 12 (0.6) 0.029
  Nasal fracture 6 (0.2) 10 (0.5) 0.141
Thoracic trauma, n (%)      
  Rib fracture+ 77 (3.2) 142 (7.4) <0.001
  Sternal fracture+ 0 (0.0) 5 (0.3) 0.012
  Hemothorax+ 14 (0.6) 25 (1.3) 0.012
  Pneumothorax+ 5 (0.2) 31 (1.6) <0.001
  Lung contusion+ 2 (0.1) 12 (0.6) 0.002
  Hemopneumothorax+ 5 (0.2) 31 (1.6) <0.001
  Thoracic vertebral fracture+ 37 (1.5) 57 (3.0) 0.001
Abdominal trauma, n (%)      
  Intra-abdominal injury+ 3 (0.1) 20 (1.0) <0.001
  Hepatic injury+ 3 (0.1) 18 (0.9) <0.001
  Splenic injury 1 (0.04) 5 (0.3) 0.054
  Retroperitoneal injury 2 (0.1) 4 (0.2) 0.269
  Renal injury 3 (0.1) 7 (0.4) 0.101
  Urinary bladder injury 1 (0.04) 4 (0.2) 0.108
  Lumbar vertebral fracture+ 64 (2.7) 112 (5.9) <0.001
  Sacral vertebral fracture+ 4 (0.2) 22 (1.2) <0.001
Extremity trauma, n (%)      
  Scapular fracture 6 (0.2) 10 (0.5) 0.141
  Clavicle fracture+ 25 (1.0) 43 (2.3) 0.002
  Humeral fracture 118 (4.9) 101 (5.3) 0.572
  Radial fracture+ 224 (9.3) 363 (19.0) <0.001
  Ulnar fracture+ 100 (4.2) 119 (6.2) 0.002
  Femoral fracture* 1215 (50.6) 270 (14.1) <0.001
  Patella fracture+ 55 (2.3) 100 (5.2) <0.001
  Tibia fracture+ 44 (1.8) 111 (5.8) <0.001
  Fibular fracture+ 26 (1.1) 67 (3.5) <0.001
  Metacarpal fracture+ 7 (0.3) 35 (1.8) <0.001
  Metatarsal fracture+ 12 (0.5) 135 (7.1) <0.001
  Calcaneal fracture+ 57 (2.4) 135 (7.1) <0.001
  Pelvic fracture+ 25 (1.0) 58 (3.0) <0.001
  1. + and * indicated significant lower and higher incidences of the associated injury, respectively, in the elderly than those adult patients ( p<0.05). DM: diabetes mellitus; HTN: hypertension; CAD: coronary artery diseases; CHF: congestive heart failure; CVA: cerebrovascular accident; ESRD: end-stage renal disease.