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Table 2 Demographic and clinical data

From: Venovenous extracorporeal life support for posttraumatic respiratory distress syndrome in adults: the risk of major hemorrhages

Variable Survivors (n = 14) Non-survivors (n = 6) p Patient with hemorrhagic complication (n = 7) Patient without hemorrhage complications (n = 13) p
Age (years) 41 (29–57) 30 (22–61) 0.35 33 (23–53) 43 (28–58) 0.49
Injury severity score 29 (19–43) 63 (26–75) 0.09 29 (18–75) 41 (24–47) 1.0
Pre-ECLS CPR (n) 1 3 0.06 2 2 0.59
Pre-ECLS ICH (n) 2 2 0.55 2 2 0.59
Trauma-to-ECLS hour 49 (10–205) 95 (21–329) 0.35 10 (7–23) 115 (37–315) 0.008*
Trauma-to-ECLS < 24 hours (n) 2 7 0.64 6 3 0.02*
Pre-ECLS intubation hour 27 (6–145) 88 (18–187) 0.31 8 (5–21) 91 (27–162) 0.04*
Pre-ECLS RBC transfusion (u) 1 (0–4) 10 (1–18) 0.34 6 (3–17) 1 (0–3) 0.05*
Pre-ECLS platelet transfusion (u) 0 6 (0–39) 0.1 0 (0–18) 0 0.58
Pre-ECLS plasma transfusion (u) 5 (3–16) 11 (0–17) 0.18 5 (3–16) 2 (0–6) 0.05*
Pre-ECLS TIC 9 6 0.26 6 9 0.61
Heparin-minimized ECLS (n) 7 4 0.64 7 4 0.005*
ECLS pump flow (L/min) 4 (3.6-4.6) 3.7 (3.4-4) 0.27 4.1 (3.3-4.3) 3.6 (3.5-4.6) 0.7
1 st day RBC transfusion (u) 1 (1–10) 7 (3–13) 0.16 10 (3–14) 1 (1–6) 0.007*
1 st day Platelet transfusion (u) 0 (0–24) 12 (12–24) 1.0 24 (12–24) 0 (0–12) 0.03*
1 st day Plasma transfusion (u) 11 (5–22) 10 (0–24) 0.26 11 (5–22) 0 (0–7) 0.05*
CVVH on ECLS (n) 3 4 0.12 1 6 0.33
Hemorrhagic complications (n) 4 3 0.61 - - -
Weaning-off ECLS (n) 14 2 0.003* 5 11 0.59
ECLS hour 144 (74–196) 232 (36–575) 0.9 69 (40–145) 169 (86–440) 0.02*
Post-ECLS intubation hour 231 (61–476) - - 72 (0–363) 111 (23–427) 0.7
Tracheostomy (n) 7 1 0.33 2 6 0.64
Hospital days 69 (27–81) 32 (4–46) 0.04* 45 (5–76) 45 (27–78) 0.49
  1. Numerical variable is presented as median and interquartile range (IQR).
  2. ECLS: Extracorporeal life support. CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ICH: Intracranial hemorrhage. Trauma-to-ECLS hour: The time interval between trauma to the initiation of ECLS. RBC transfusion includes the amount of whole blood and packed red cell concentrate. Plasma transfusion includes the amount of whole blood, frozen fresh plasma and cryoprecipitate. TIC: Trauma induced coagulopathy (INR > 1.3 or aPTT > 35 seconds). CVVH: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration. *p < 0.05.