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Table 7 Influence of extrathoracic factors and thoracic diagnoses on survival (factors with significantly adverse prognosis are written in bold letters)

From: Predictors of poor outcomes after significant chest trauma in multiply injured patients: a retrospective analysis from the German Trauma Registry (Trauma Register DGU®)

  Regression coefficient B Significance p= Exp(B) = odds ratio 95% CI for OR
Upper Lower
Thoracic vessel injuries   .000    
Vessel injuries AIS 2 .554 .310 1.740 .597 5.071
Vessel injuries AIS 3 .913 .000 2.492 1.522 4.081
Vessel injuries AIS 4 -.020 .927 .980 .634 1.513
Vessel injuries AIS 5 1.683 .000 5.382 3.669 7.894
Vessel injuries AIS 6 2.864 .000 17.531 7.688 39.976
Lung contusions   .000    
Unilateral minor (AIS 2) -.577 .000 .562 .474 .665
Unilateral major (AIS 3) -.264 .000 .768 .682 .865
Bilateral (AIS 4) .374 .000 1.454 1.226 1.723
Lung lacerations   .000    
Unilateral minor (AIS 3) -.280 .015 .756 .603 .948
Unilateral major or bilateral minor (AIS 4) -,103 ,290 ,902 ,745 1,092
Bilateral major (AIS 5) 1,114 ,000 3,047 2,061 4,505
Rib fractures   ,000    
One rib (AIS 1) -,018 ,895 ,983 ,758 1,273
Two ribs (AIS 2) -,558 ,000 ,572 ,467 ,702
Three or more (AIS 3) -,338 ,000 ,713 ,630 ,808
Flail chest   ,000    
Unilateral minor (AIS 3) -,089 ,374 ,914 ,751 1,114
Unilateral minor (AIS 3) -,091 ,408 ,913 ,737 1,132
Bilateral (AIS 5) ,530 ,000 1,698 1,401 2,059
Patient age   ,000    
Age 55-64 ,424 ,000 1,527 1,313 1,777
Age 65-74 ,970 ,000 2,638 2,298 3,028
Age 75+ 1,940 ,000 6,957 6,100 7,934
Pneumothorax/Hemopneumothorax   ,000    
Minor Pneumothorax/NFS (AIS 2) -,332 ,000 ,718 ,596 ,864
Minor Hemopneumothorax (AIS 3) -,309 ,000 ,734 ,626 ,861
Major Hemothorax or Pneumothorax (AIS 4) -,050 ,475 ,952 ,830 1,090
Tension (AIS 5) ,136 ,187 1,145 ,936 1,401
Blood transfusion   ,000    
1-9 Units ,598 ,000 1,819 1,628 2,033
10 + Units 1,289 ,000 3,630 3,108 4,239
Initial systolic pressure < 90 ,695 ,000 2,004 1,804 2,227
Systolic pressure < 90 upon admission 1,106 ,000 3,023 2,706 3,377
AIS Head ≥ 3 1,367 ,000 3,922 3,552 4,332
AIS Abdomen ≥ 3 ,314 ,000 1,368 1,222 1,533
Sternal fracture -,228 ,008 ,796 ,672 ,943
Structural heart injury (AIS ≥ 3) 1,502 ,000 4,491 2,894 6,970
Constant -3,519 ,000 ,030   
  1. The variables influencing the target variable mortality following blunt thoracic trauma have been investigated using logistic regression analysis and forward selection for each variable as documented in the registry.