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Table 2 Hemodynamic variables, intracranial pressure and brain oxygenation

From: Resuscitation speed affects brain injury in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury and shock

  Group Baseline Post 2 hour shock Post resuscitation and 6 hour observation* p-value#
Heart rate (Beats/min) FFP Fast 110.83 ± 9.83 182.67 ± 6.66 144.94 ± 7.45 0.27
  FFP Slow 112.20 ± 3.12 215.80 ± 8.84 156.83 ± 7.13  
NS Fast 108.00 ± 10.33 177.00 ± 17.60 123.51 ± 6.70 0.01
NS Slow 97.00 ± 4.11 204.67 ± 8.18 149.00 ± 6.16  
MAP (mmHg) FFP Fast 73.83 ± 3.59 31.66 ± 0.0.99 55.90 ± 0.93 0.05
FFP Slow 64.40 ± 2.69 34.20 ± 3.01 53.39 ± 0.86  
NS Fast 77.50 ± 6.82 32.25 ± 0.95 52.93 ± 1.41 0.01
NS Slow 59.17 ± 3.64 30.00 ± 0.52 46.92 ± 1.30  
spO2 (%) FFP Fast 94.86 ± 0.40 92.00 ± 1.57 94.22 ± 0.52 0.06
FFP Slow 94.00 ± 0.89 90.00 ± 2.63 92.79 ± 0.49  
NS Fast 94.25 ± 0.48 92.50 ± 3.88 94.05 ± 0.34 <0.01
NS Slow 94.00 ± 0.52 94.17 ± 1.19 91.37 ± 0.43  
MPAP (mmHg) FFP Fast 19.33 ± 1.69 12.17 ± 3.16 15.12 ± 1.26 <0.01
FFP Slow 16.00 ± 1.70 20.60 ± 4.82 23.11 ± 1.17  
NS Fast 20.75 ± 1.32 14.50 ± 6.00 18.93 ± 0.85 0.66
NS Slow 17.33 ± 1.82 14.67 ± 1.99 20.22 ± 1.16  
CVP (mmHg) FFP Fast 2.50 ± 1.50 −3.83 ± 1.85 −0.07 ± 0.92 0.03
FFP Slow 2.40 ± 1.81 −0.60 ± 2.34 2.85 ± 0.85  
NS Fast 5.00 ± 0.71 0.01 ± 1.78 3.50 ± 1.08 0.90
NS Slow 3.50 ± 1.25 −7.50 ± 8.56 3.31 ± 0.99  
Cardiac Output (l/min) FFP Fast 5.17 ± 0.51 1.85 ± 1.13 4.81 ± 1.50 0.03
FFP Slow 5.90 ± 0.27 2.38 ± 0.46 5.45 ± 1.14  
NS Fast 5.65 ± 0.49 1.75 ± 0.15 4.37 ± 0.12 <0.01
NS Slow 5.77 ± 0.55 2.05 ± 0.37 6.35 ± 0.10  
ICP (mmHg) FFP Fast 7.33 ± 0.71 5.29 ± 0.97 9.10 ± 0.72 0.02
FFP Slow 3.40 ± 1.36 1.80 ± 1.74 6.36 ± 0.68  
NS Fast 5.75 ± 0.48 5.87 ± 1.63 9.39 ± 0.83 0.11
NS Slow 4.00 ± 1.13 −0.33 ± 1.08 7.50 ± 0.76  
Brain pO2 (mmHg) FFP Fast 14.80 ± 2.63 7.37 ± 1.48 10.42 ± 2.33 0.87
FFP Slow 13.76 ± 2.68 6.20 ± 1.29 9.90 ± 2.28  
NS Fast 12.00 ± 1.14 5.87 ± 1.63 10.32 ± 1.90 0.09
NS Slow 13.87 ± 3.65 8.90 ± 3.96 14.54 ± 1.56  
Stroke volume (ml/stroke) FFP Fast 47.51 ± 3.90 10.41 ± 0.94 33.26 ± 1.64 0.25
FFP Slow 52.55 ± 1.50 11.48 ± 2.88 35.90 ± 1.54  
NS Fast 53.15 ± 5.12 10.10 ± 0.96 42.93 ± 4.63 0.87
NS Slow 58.86 ± 3.25 10.18 ± 2.09 41.92 ± 4.28  
SVR (dyn*s/cm 5 ) FFP Fast 1137.63 ± 3.34 1566.77 ± 163.67 1052.75 ± 65.90 0.04
FFP Slow 850.13 ± 61.00 1280.60 ± 149.39 761.63 ± 22.42  
NS Fast 1059.18 ± 163.17 1482.81 ± 51.77 921.40 ± 19.42 <0.01
NS Slow 822.37 ± 107.35 1468.74 ± 132.93 573.41 ± 17.92  
  1. SPB: Systolic blood pressure; MAP: Mean arterial pressure; MPAP: Mean pulmonary artery pressure; CVP: Central venous pressure; ICP: Intracranial pressure; SVR: Systemic vascular resistance. (*) Estimated marginal means by the statistical model throughout the 6-hour observation phase. (#) Comparisons of same fluid type estimated means using a linear mixed model. P-values in bold indicate significant differences.