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Table 1 Immobilization

From: Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of cervical trauma collars: differences in immobilization, effect on jugular venous pressure and patient comfort

    P-values of comparisons
Collar type Mean° Range° Without Stifneck Miami J Philadelphia Vista
Without 53 ± 9 45 - 65      
Stifneck 18 ± 7 12 - 29 < 0.001     
Miami J 21 ± 10 13 - 38 < 0.001 0.06    
Philadelphia 22 ± 8 15 - 32 < 0.001 0.01 0.98   
Vista 25 ± 9 16 - 39 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 0.027 -
  1. The mean, standard deviation and range of movement at baseline (without a collar) and with the four different collars tested. Collars in order of decreasing immobilization. P-values of comparisons are shown in the right part of the table.