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Table 3 Patients classified by BD (classes I to IV): traditional vital signs as presented at ED admission and at scene

From: The impact of severe traumatic brain injury on a novel base deficit- based classification of hypovolemic shock

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
BD ≤ 2.0 (none to minimal) BD >2.0 to 6.0 (mild) BD > 6.0 to 10.0 (moderate) BD > 10.0 (severe)
Vital signs     
SBP at ED (mmHg; mean ± SD) 132.3 (28.6) 124.3 (30) 113.2 (32.4) 95.7 (40.9)
HR at ED (beats/min; mean ± SD) 84.3 (18.4) 88.7 (21.6) 95.3 (23.4) 96.5 (32.9)
GCS at ED (points; median, IQR) 3 (3–14) 3 (3–8) 3 (3–3) 3 (3–3)
Intubation rate [pre-hospital] (n; %) 2306 (54.5) 2563 (71.9) 1116 (81.4) 674 (89.2)
  1. (n = 10,201; p < 0.001 for all parameters).
  2. Abbreviations: SBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, GCS Glasgow coma scale, ED Emergency Department.