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Table 2 Patients classified by BD (classes I to IV): demographics, injury mechanism and severities as well as outcome parameters

From: The impact of severe traumatic brain injury on a novel base deficit- based classification of hypovolemic shock

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
BD ≤ 2.0 (none to minimal) BD >2.0 to 6.0 (mild) BD > 6.0 to 10.0 (moderate) BD > 10.0 (severe)
Demographics     
n (total, %) 4369 (42.8) 3658 (35.9) 1404 (13.8) 770 (7.5)
Male (n, %) 3211 (73.9) 2636 (72.6) 982 (70.5) 523 (68.2)
Age (years; mean ± SD) 50.9 (21.4) 46.4 (21) 45.6 (20.6) 46.2 (20.3)
Blunt trauma (n, %) 4121 (97.3) 3467 (96.8) 1332 (96.2) 703 (93.1)
Injury severity     
ISS (points; mean ± SD) 25.8 (11.9) 30.2 (13.6) 35.2 (15.9) 41.6 (17.0)
AIS Thorax ≥3 points (n; %) 1476 (33.8) 1642 (44.9) 742 (52.8) 486 (63.1)
AIS Abdomen ≥3 points (n; %) 236 (5.4) 395 (10.8) 270 (19.2) 19.9 (25.8)
AIS Pelvis/Extremities ≥3 points (n; %) 650 (14.9) 892 (24.4) 469 (33.4) 305 (39.6)
Outcome     
Mortality (n; %) 696 (15.9) 805 (22) 502 (35.8) 473 (61.4)
Hospital LOS (days; mean ± SD) 18.1 (17.8) 21.7 (25) 20.8 (24.8) 16 (29.1)
ICU (days; mean ± SD) 10.8 (12.2) 13.5 (13.8) 14 (15.9) 11.1 (16.8)
Ventilator days (days; mean ± SD) 7.3 (10.4) 9.7 (11.8) 10.5 (13.1) 9.1 (14.4)
MOF (n; %) 694 (18) 876 (26.8) 389 (32.6) 256 (44.4)
Sepsis (n, %) 296 (7.5) 428 (12.5) 194 (15.8) 83 (14.1)
  1. (n = 10,201; p < 0.001 for all parameters).
  2. Abbreviations: ISS injury severity score, AIS abbreviated injury scale, LOS length of stay, ICU intensive care unit, MOF multiple organ failure.