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Table 1 The characteristics of trauma, indication of venoarterial extracorporeal life support, and outcomes

From: Venoarterial extracorporeal life support in post-traumatic shock and cardiac arrest: lessons learned

No. Age/sex ISS Pre-VA-ECLS summary of major injuries Pre-ECLS Indication of VA-ECLS Operation on VA- ECLS Outcomes
  Injury mechanism    Damage-control surgery    
  Time to VA-ECLS*       
1 21/M 75 OHCA (traumatic asphyxia) No CA in ED No Died-on-ECLS (ECLS h:75)
Car accident Bilateral lung contusion and HPnTx
3 h Minor pelvic fracture
2 37/M 10 Scalp lacerations Right thoracotomy: CA in OR Re-thoracotomy for hemostasis Survived (ECLS h:112)
Chest stabbing Right massive HTx RLL wedge resection
4 h
3 48/M 13 Right massive HTx, Right thoracotomy CA in OR Cardiorrhaphy Survived (ECLS h:91)
Car accident Grade 2 liver injury
4 h
4 38/M 34 Coma (< 6 h), No Refractory hypothermia (31˚C) No Died-on-ECLS (Termination of ECLS after 7 h)
Accidental fall Bilateral lung contusion
5 h Refractory hypothermia 31 ~ 30˚C
5 29/M 41 Coma (≤ 6 h) No CA in ED No Died-on-ECLS (ECLS h:17)
High-voltage electrocution 3rd degree burn (35% TBSA)
6 h Right open PnTx, bilateral lung contusion
Right femoral fracture
6 33/M 36 Coma (> 6 h), Minor C-spine fracture, Bilateral thoracotomy: CA in ICU Change to VV mode Died-on-ECLS (ECLS h:297)
Accidental fall Bilateral lung contusion, ribs fractures, and HPnTx RLL and LLL lobectomies
20 h Minor pelvic fracture.
7 47/F 41 Traumatic SAH Right thoracotomy: CA in OR Reapir colonic perforation and end-ileostomy. Died-on-ECLS (ECLS h:69)
Motorbike accident Bilateral lung contusion and HPnTx, Diaphragmatic rupture, grade 3 liver injury, grade 4 spleen injury, pelvic fracture with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, right radial fracture Repair of RLL and diaphragmatic laceration
47 h Laparotomy:
Splenectomy, hepatorrhaphy, retroperitoneal packing
8 45/M 20 Bilateral lung contusion, flial chest, right HPnTx No CA in ICU Change to VV mode Died-on-ECLS (Termination of ECLS after 258 h)
Motorbike accident Right clavicle, ribs, left tibial and humeral fracture.
48 h
9 24/M 18 Right lung contusion Laparotomy: CA in ICU (sepsis) No Survived (ECLS h:116)
Motorbike accident Mesenteric injury with small bowel gangrene Segmental bowel resection and end-ileostomy
  315 h   Minor L- spine fracture     
  1. Time to VA-ECLS*: Emergency department admission to VA-ECLS deployment.
  2. ISS: Injury severity score. VA-ECLS: venoarterial extracorporeal life support. OHCA: Out hospital cardiac arrest. CA: Cardiac arrest. HTx: Hemothorax. PnTx: Pneumothorax. HPnTx: Hemopneumothorax. C-Spine: Cervical spine. L-spine: Lumbar spine. RML: Right middle lobe. RLL: Right lower lobe. LLL: Left lower lobe.
  3. SAH: Subarachnoid hemorrhage.