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Table 3 Risk factors of death at 14 days

From: Prehospital risk factors of mortality and impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study

  Univariate model Multivariate model
  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P values Hazard ratio (95% CI) P values
Patient-related risks     
Age 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.0001 1.03 (1.02-1.04) 0.0001
GCS ≥9 in ED 1   1  
GCS <9 in ED 3.98 (2.57-6.14) <0.0001 2.08 (1.25-3.46) 0.005
Normal pupil reaction in ED 1   1  
Abnormal pupil reaction in ED 4.00 (2.51-5.51) <0.0001 2.47 (1.72-3.54) <0.0001
ISS <25 1   1  
ISS ≥25 4.03 (2.37-6.85) <0.0001 2.62 (1.48-4.63) 0.0001
Falls 1    
Road traffic accidents 0.80 (-1.24; 0.22) 0.216   
Others mechanisms 0.90 (-0.47; 0.64) 0.636   
Treatable prehospital risks     
Hypotension (syst BP <90) 2.71 (1.50-4.89) 0.001 2.13 (1.12-4.04) 0.001
Hypoxemia (SpO2 <90%) 1.93 (1.31-2.85) 0.001 1.44 (0.95-2.17) 0.083
Hypothermia (<35.0°C) 1.80 (1.30-2.49) <0.0001 1.42 (1.00-2.01) 0.049
Intervention-related risks     
Prehospital time 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 0.079   
Direct admission 1   1  
Indirect admission 0.71 (0.48-1.058) 0.092 0.88 (0.58-1.34) 0.552