Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of included studies (n=35)

From: Adherence to guidelines and protocols in the prehospital and emergency care setting: a systematic review

First author Design Methods Monocenter/multicenter Professionals Patients Guideline (year of publication) Quality
(Year)
Country        
Prehospital
Caulfield Retrospective, descriptive Prehospital record review Monocenter: 1 EMS HEMS paramedics 100 patients with traumatic brain injury Brain Trauma Foundation Guideline for prehospital management of patients with traumatic brain injury (2007) 9.5
(2009)
USA
Cooke Retrospective, descriptive Patient report forms Multicenter: 19 EMSs Paramedics 69 patients with suspected meningococcal septicemia Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee Clinical Guidelines for the administration of benzyl penicillin for suspected diagnosis of meningococcal septicemia (2003) 7
(2005)
UK
Franschman 2009 The Netherlands Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 EMS Ambulance nurses EMS physicians 127 patients with traumatic brain injury Brain Trauma Foundation Guideline for prehospital management of patients with traumatic brain injury (2007) 9
  Dutch Ambulance Care National Protocol (2007)
Hale Retrospective, descriptive Prehospital record review Monocenter: 1 EMS Not specified 1022 patients who received O2 Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee Clinical Guidelines for the administration of oxygen (2007) 8.5
(2008)
UK
Jeremie Prospective, descriptive Prehospital record review Multicenter: 3 EMSs Anesthesiologists Emergency physicians 143 patients who were sedated and intubated SFAR Recommendations for sedation: analgesia in out-of-emergency medicine (2000) 10
(2005)
France
Kirves Retrospective, cohort Prehospital record review Multicenter: >75 EMSs Paramedics EMS physicians 157 patients with cardiac arrest The Subdivision of Emergency Medicine of Finnish Society of Anaesthesiologists, Finnish Resuscitation Council and Red Cross of Finland. Resuscitation guidelines (2002) 9
(2007)
Finland
Scliopou Retrospective, descriptive Database review Multicenter: 35 EMSs Paramedics 70 patients with cardiac arrest American Heart Association Advanced cardiac Life Support Guidelines (2000) 10
(2005)
USA
Thomas Prospective, descriptive Data collection chart Monocenter: 1 EMS HEMS nurses HEMS paramedics 37 patients with traumatic brain injury Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury (1995) 10
(2002)
USA
Wik (2005) Norway/Sweden/UK Prospective, case series Data cards Multicenter: 3 EMSs Nurse anesthesists Paramedics 176 patients with cardiac arrest Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science (2000) 10
  International guidelines for CPR and ECCL: a consensus on science (2000)
Prehospital & Emergency Department
Charpentier Prospective, cohort Case report form Multicenter: 1 UH, 8 EMSs, 26 MICUs, 37 EDs, 22 CICUs Emergency physicians 1277 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction (1999) 10
(2009)
France
Emergency Department
Atreja Retrospective, descriptive Chart review Monocenter: 1 ED Emergency physicians 94 patients with an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) American College of Chest Physicians recommendations for antithrombotic therapy for prevention and treatment of thrombosis (2001) 10
(2005)
USA
Clark Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Multicenter: 21 EDs Not specified 678 patients with allergic reaction to food American academy of allergy, asthma, & immunology guideline for the management of food allergy (2003) 10
(2004)
USA & Canada
Cydulka (2003) USA/Canada Prospective, cohort Medical record review Telephone interviews Multicenter: 29 EDs Not specified 397 patients with exacerbation COPD American thoracic society standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (1987) 10
  British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary
De Miguel-Yanes Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 53 patients with suspected sepsis Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock (2004) 9.5
(2006)
Spain
Doherty Retrospective, pre-test post-test Database review Multicenter: 2 EDs Not specified 215 patients with asthma NSW Department of Health guideline for the optimal treatment of chronic respiratory diseases (2003) 10
(2007)
Australia
Elkharrat Prospective, pre-test post test Data collection chart Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 389 patients with open wounds World Health Organisation guideline for antitetanus prophylaxis (1992) 10
(1999)
France
Ferguson Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Pediatric emergency physicians 167 children with fever Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guideline for the management of infants and children 0 to 36 months of age with fever without source (1993) 9.5
(2012)
USA
Grant Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 473 patients with acute pain British Association of Accident and Emergency Medicine guideline for the management of pain in adults (2005) 10
(2006)
UK
Jain (2002) USA Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Pediatric residents 229 children with fever Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guideline for the management of infants and children 0 to 36 months of age with fever without source (1993) 9.5
  Fellows
  Nurse practitioners
Kelly Prospective, descriptive Data collection chart Multicenter: 38 EDs Not specified 1340 patients with acute asthma National Asthma Campaign asthma management guideline (1998) 9.5
(2013)
Australia
Lee (2001) Taiwan Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Multicenter: 6 EDs Emergency physicians 120 patients with acute asthma 1. British Thotacic Society guidelines I & II for the management of asthma in adults (1990&1993) 9
  2. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guideline for the diagnosis and management of asthma (1991 & 1994 & 1997)
  3. Asthma management guidelines and therapeutic Issues relating to the treatment of asthma. Chest (1999)
Mansbach (2007) USA Prospective, cohort Medical record review Multicenter: 17 EDs Not specified 624 children with bronchiolitis American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee of Fetus and Newborn guidelines for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections: indications for the use of palivizumab and update on the use of RSV-IGIV (1998) 9
  Interviews
Milks Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 181 patients with asthma National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guideline for the diagnosis and management of asthma (1991) 8
(1999)
USA
Muayqil Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Emergency physicians 45 patients with convulsive status epilepticus Epilepsy Foundation of America guidelines for the management convulsive status epilepticus (1993) 10
(2007)
Canada
Musacchio Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 163 patients with urinary tract infections, urinary symptoms or sexually transmitted disease Center for Disease Control and Prevention: guideline for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (2006) 9
(2009)
USA
Pham (2007) USA Cross sectional, descriptive Database review Multicenter: 544 EDs Not specified 1492 patients with acute myocardial infarction Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Specification manual for national hospital quality measures for acute myocardial infarction and asthma (2007) 10
  3955 patients with pneumonia
Reid (2000) Canada Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Multicenter: 3 EDs Emergency physicians 130 patients with asthma National guideline for the emergency management of asthma in adults (1996) 10
  Emergency nurses
Roy (2006) France & Belgium Prospective, cohort Data collection chart Multicenter: 117 EDs Emergency physicians 1529 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Committee. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (2003) 9.5
  British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (2003)
  European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism (2000)
Salmeron (2001) France Prospective, cohort Data collection chart Multicenter: 37 EDs Emergency physicians 4087 patients with acute asthma 1. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines for the diagnosis and the management of asthma (1997) 10
  2. British guidelines on asthma management, 1995 review and position statement (1997)
Shaked Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 E Not specified 56 children with febrile seizure American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Practice Parameter: the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a first simple febrile seizure (1996) 10
(2009)
USA
Teismann Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Emergency residents Physician assistants 553 patients with suspected venous thromboembolism American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee on Suspected Pulmonary Embolism, evaluation and management of adult patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (2003) 9
(2009)
USA
Thakore Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Not specified 100 patients with syncope American college of physicians guideline for management of patients with syncope (1997) 9
(1999)
Scotland
Trzeciak Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Emergency physicians 22 patients with confirmed or suspected sepsis Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock (2004) 10
(2006)
USA
Tsai (2009) USA Retrospective, cohort Medical record review Multicenter: 2 EDs Emergency physicians 272 patients with COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2001) 10
  Interview American College of Physicians guidelines for Management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2001)
  American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society joint guidelines Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD (2004)
Wright Retrospective, descriptive Medical record review Monocenter: 1 ED Emergency physicians 244 patients who received vancomycin Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance: Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (1995) 10
(1998)
USA        
  1. Abbreviations: CICU Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, ED Emergency Department, EMS Emergency Medical Service, HEMS Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, MICU Mobile Intensive Care Unit, UH University Hospital.
  2. Quality: assessed on a scale from 0 (poor quality) to 10 (excellent quality).