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Table 1 Changes of cardiac-pulmonary functions and hemodilution after hemorrhage and resuscitation with lactated Ringer’s (LR) solution or normal saline (NS) in pigs

From: Comparisons of normal saline and lactated Ringer’s resuscitation on hemodynamics, metabolic responses, and coagulation in pigs after severe hemorrhagic shock

  Baseline Resuscitation 3 h 6 h
Cardiac output (L/min)
Control 3.9 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.4 3.6 ± 0.2
LR 3.7 ± 0.2 3.9 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 0.2
NS 3.8 ± 0.3 5.9 ± 0.5*§♣ 4.7 ± 0.3§ 4.5 ± 0.2§♣
Stroke volume (ml/beat)
Control 36.5 ± 3.5 36.8 ± 2.2 36.8 ± 3.7 35.5 ± 3.9
LR 41.4 ± 3.3 24.9 ± 1.6*§♣ 21.4 ± 2.3*§ 24.7 ± 2.1*§
NS 38.2 ± 4.9 45.7 ± 4.7 38.1 ± 3.3 40.1 ± 3.3
Total Peripheral resistance (mm Hg/(L/min))
Control 20.4 ± 1.4 18.6 ± 2.0 17.3 ± 2.6 17.7 ± 1.3
LR 22.9 ± 1.0 17.7 ± 0.9* 17.9 ± 1.3* 17.4 ± 0.7*
NS 23.1 ± 1.8 12.5 ± 1.4*§ 12.5 ± 0.7*§ 12.0 ± 0.4*§
Hct (%)
Control 29.0 ± 0.8% 28.9 ± 0.9% 28.0 ± 0.9% 27.6 ± 1.0%
LR 30.2 ± 1.0% 13.1 ± 0.9%* 14.0 ± 0.7%* 14.7 ± 0.6%*
NS 29.0 ± 1.0% 11.6 ± 0.8 %* 12.5 ± 0.6%* 12.2 ± 0.7%*
  1. Animal groups include control (C, n = 6), hemorrhage with LR resuscitation (LR, n = 6), and hemorrhage with normal saline resuscitation (NS, n = 6). Data are expressed as means ± SE.
  2. *p < 0.05 compared to corresponding baseline values within the group; §p < 0.05 LR vs NS groups; and p < 0.05 compared to corresponding control values.