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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the study subjects

From: Comparison between laparotomy first versus angiographic embolization first in patients with pelvic fracture and hemoperitoneum: a nationwide observational study from the Japan Trauma Data Bank

   Number (percent) Laparotomy first TAE first P
(Total number = 317) (N = 123) (N = 194)
Patient characteristics     
    Age years (mean ± SD) 48.8 ± 22.5 48.7 ± 21.3 48.9 ± 23.3 0.955
  ≤25 67 (21%) 24 (20%) 43 (22%)  
  26-49 91 (29%) 36 (29%) 55 (28%)  
  50-64 64 (20%) 34 (28%) 30 (15%)  
  ≥65 94 (30%) 28 (23%) 66 (34%)  
    Gender      <0.001*
  male 185 (58%) 86 (70%) 99 (51%)  
  female 132 (42%) 37 (30%) 95 (49%)  
No. of comorbidities      0.346
  0 181 (57%) 74 (60%) 107 (55%)  
  1 106 (33%) 39 (32%) 67 (35%)  
  ≥2 30 (10%) 10 (8%) 20 (10%)  
Pre-hospital      
  artificial respiration 14 (4%) 10 (8%) 4 (2%) 0.010*
  prehospital IV 31 (10%) 15 (12%) 16 (8%) 0.249
In-hospital      
    SBP mmHg (mean ± SD) 91 ± 33 84 ± 32 97 ± 33 <0.001*
  ≤65 67 (21%) 35 (28%) 32 (16%)  
  66-89 96 (30%) 46 (37%) 50 (26%)  
  ≥90 151 (48%) 42 (34%) 109 (56%)  
    HR beat/min (mean ± SD) 104 ± 28 104 ± 30 104 ± 26 0.927
    BT °C (mean ± SD) 35.8 ± 1.2 35.6 ± 1.0 35.9 ± 1.2 0.063
    GCS score mean ± SD 11.7 ± 4.0 11.1 ± 4.5 12.1 ± 3.7 0.035*
    (total) < 9 69 (23%) 36 (31%) 33 (18%)  
  9-13 76 (25%) 25 (21%) 51 (27%)  
  > 13 160 (52%) 57 (48%) 103 (55%)  
Severity of injuries      
    ISS mean ± SD 37.4 ± 13.9 38.5 ± 12.9 33.8 ± 13.9 0.027*
  < 26 80 (25%) 19 (15%) 61 (31%)  
  26-35 86 (27%) 35 (28%) 51 (26%)  
  36-45 76 (24%) 31 (25%) 45 (23%)  
  > 45 75 (24%) 38 (31%) 37 (19%)  
    RTS mean ± SD 6.3 ± 1.6 5.8 ± 1.8 6.6 ± 1.4 <0.001*
    Ps(TRISS) mean ± SD 0.63 ± 0.32 0.53 ± 0.34 0.68 ± 0.30 <0.001*
    AIS      
  Pelvic fracture 3.5 ± 1.3 3.3 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 1.3 0.025*
  Head 0.9 ± 1.5 1.0 ± 1.5 0.9 ± 1.5 0.863
  Face 0.3 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.6 0.462
  Thorax 2.4 ± 1.9 2.5 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.9 0.374
  Abdomen 2.5 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.6 <0.001*
  Upper extremity 0.7 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 1.0 0.997
Associated injury      
  Liver 99 (31%) 45 (37%) 54 (28%) 0.101
  Spleen 70 (22%) 29 (24%) 41 (21%) 0.609
  Kidney 45 (14%) 21 (17%) 24 (12%) 0.242
  Bladder 25 (8%) 12 (10%) 13 (7%) 0.325
  Bowel perforation 21 (7%) 17 (14%) 4 (2%) <0.001*
  Mesenteric 34 (11%) 27 (22%) 7 (4%) <0.001*
  1. AIS, abbreviated injury scale; BT, body temperature; GCS, Glasgow coma scale; HR, heart rate; ISS, injury severity score; IV, intravascular; Ps, probability of survival; RTS, revised trauma score; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation; TAE, transcatheter arterial embolization; TRISS, trauma and injury severity score.
  2. *p values significant at p < 0.05.