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Table 2 Equipment to prevent, diagnose and treat hypothermia in Norway

From: Equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia: a survey of Norwegian pre-hospital services

  Ground ambulance services (AS) Fixed wing (FW) (n = 9) Helicopter emergency medical service(HEMS) National search and rescue service (SAR)
  Total 512 Total 9 Total 12 Total 10
  n and (%) n and (%) n and (%) n and (%)
Insulation material available
Space blankets 151 (29) 5 (56) 8 (67) 0
Hospital duvets 468 (91) 9 (100) 11 (92) 10 (100)
Cotton blankets 436 (85) 7 (78) 7 (58) 2 (20)
Plastic “bubble wrap” 428 (84) 0 12 (100) 10 (100)
Wool blankets 154 (30) 9 (100) 2 (17) 9 (90)
Sleeping bags 0 0 0 0
Shelter bags (not insulated) 0 0 0 0
Insulated shelter bags 0 0 2 (17) 10 (100)
Separate head cover 220 (43) 0 7 (58) 10 (100)
Body bags 512 (100) 0 0 10 (100)
Plastic covers 0 1 (11) 0 0
Othera 148 (29) 0 0 0
Active warming equipment 72 (14) 4 (44) 7 (58) 7 (70)
Chemical heat pads 57 (11) 4 (44) 7 (58) 5 (50)
Water bottles 0 0 0 5 (50)
Electrical heating blankets 0 0 4 (33) 0
Forced air warmer 0 0 2 (17) 0
Warm i.v. fluid protocol 15 (3) 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0
Treatment protocols 373 (73) 2 (22) 5 (42) 7 (70)
Hypothermia thermometers
Yes 61 (12) 7 (100) 12 (100) 10 (100)
Not sure 123 (24) 0 0 0
For rectal use 61 (100)b 7 (100) 12 (100) 8 (80)
For oesophageal use 0 7 (100) 12 (100) 8 (80)
For tympanic use 46 (75)b 0 0 2 (20)
For oral use 0 (0)b 1 (11) 0 0
For axillary use 0 (0)b 3 (33) 0 0
Otherd 0 4 (44) 0 3 (30)
Hot i.v. fluids 468 (91) 1 (11) 11 (92)c 10 (100)
Infusion heaters 15 (3) 0 2 (17) 2 (20)
  1. aBlizzard® rescue blanket, vacuum mattresses.
  2. bNumber and percentage of units represented in “Yes” category (n = 61).
  3. cHEMS fluids are kept warm in storage lockers at the base, not in the helicopter unit.
  4. dBladder, skin.