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Table 6 Methods used to manage unexpected difficult intubations (n = 153)*

From: Pre-hospital advanced airway management by experienced anaesthesiologists: a prospective descriptive study

Method Number % of all difficult intubations
Direct laryngoscopy 116 75.8
Bag-valve-mask ventilation 2 1.3
Standard Laryngeal mask 2 1.3
Intubating Laryngeal Mask 6 3.9
Gum-Elastic-Bougie 7 4.6
Airtraq 15 9.8
Surgical Airway 1 0.7
  1. *Not including four cases were the physician used a back-up device as first choice.