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Table 2 Characteristics of critically ill (modified early warning scrore, mEWS > 3) and non-critically ill (mEWS ≤ 3) patients

From: Critically ill patients in emergency department may be characterized by low amplitude and high variability of amplitude of pulse photoplethysmography

  mEWS > 3 (N = 18) mEWS ≤ 3 (N = 194) p-value
Characteristics    
Age (years, median, IQR, 95% CI) 65.49 (35.32-76.64, 47.12–68.50) 57.15 (40.01-71.25, 53.65-59.06) 0.7072
Sex (males, %, 95% CI) 5 (27.78, 12.17-51.20) 104 (53.61, 46.59-60.49) 0.0478
Systolic BP (mmHg, median, IQR, 95% CI) 108 (95–139, 98.14-134.1) 131 (119–151, 133.0-139.7) 0.0013
Heart rate (min-1, median, IQR, 95% CI) 103 (75–117, 87.47-115.0) 75 (64–84, 72.53-76.53) 0.0008
Respiratory rate (min-1, median, IQR, 95% CI) 20 (14–24, 16.64-22.65) 16 (14–20, 16.87-18.14) 0.1156
Tympanic temperature (°C, median, IQR, 95% CI) 36.5 (36.0-37.8, 35.43-37.57) 36.8 (36.4-37.1, 36.71-36.87) 0.4290
Temperature difference between tympanum and finger (°C, median, IQR, 95% CI) 8.5 (4.9-10.5, 6.303-9.486) 6.7 (4.8-9.3, 6.560-7.352) 0.2290
mEWS (points, median, IQR) 5 (4–5) 1 (1–2) < 0.0001
Death during hospital stay (n, %, 95% CI) 0 (0, 0–20.67) 1 (0.515, 0.01-3.16) > 0.9999
Required intensive care during hospital stay (n, %, 95% CI) 4 (22.22, 8.47 – 45.75) 14 (7.216, 4.26-11.84) 0.0524
Transferred to OR (n, %, 95% CI) 5 (27.78, 12.17-51.20) 12 (6.186, 3.47-10.60) 0.0014
Transferred to another hospital (n, %, 95% CI) 6 (33.33, 16.10-56.43) 20 (10.31, 6.71-15.45) 0.0049
Transferred to a ward (n, %, 95% CI) 4 (22.22, 8.47-45.75) 53 (27.32, 21.52-34.00) 0.6261
Discharged from ED (n, %, 95% CI) 6 (33.33, 16.10-56.43) 97 (50.00, 43.03-56.97) 0.1648
Intubated in the ED (n, %, 95% CI) 4 (22.22, 8.47-45.75) 0 (0.0, 0.0-2.34) < 0.0001
Invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the ED (n, %, 95% CI) 6 (33.33, 16.10-56.43) 6 (3.093, 1.27-6.74) < 0.0001
Intravenous fluid replacement (ml, median, IQR, 95% CI) 1560 (763–4050, 1246–4022) 125 (0–1090, 564–888) < 0.0001
  1. IQR interquartile range, CI confidence interval.