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Table 4 Comparison of the proportions of correct completion of CPR steps among children and adults*

From: Push hard, push fast: quasi-experimental study on the capacity of elementary schoolchildren to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Steps Critical performance steps Children- % (95%CI) Adults - % (95%CI) p-value Kappa (95%CI)
1 Checks for response 85.0 (77.0-93.3) 55.0 (31.1-78.9) 0.003 0.83 (0.65-1.00)
2 Activates EMS/ambulance 55.0 (43.9-66.1) 60.0 (36.5-83.5) 0.69 0.79 (0.67-0.91)
3 Opens airway 72.5 (62.5-82.5) 55.0 (31.1-78.9) 0.13 0.84 (0.70-0.94)
4 Checks breathing 3 seconds 62.5 (51.7-73.3) 50.0 (26.0-74.0) 0.31 0.72 (0.55-0.88)
5 Gives 2 breaths 66.3 (55.7-76.8) 55.0 (31.1-78.9) 0.35 0.83 (0.70-0.96)
6 Locates CPR hand position 96.3 (92.0-100.0) 95.0 (84.5-100.0) 0.80 0.31 (−0.19-0.81)
7 Delivers 25–35 compressions 96.3 (92.0-100.0) 100.0 0.38 0.52 (0.16-0.88)
8 Opens airway 76.3 (66.7-85.8) 85.0 (67.9-100.0) 0.40 0.68 (0.48-0.88)
9 Gives 2 breaths 75.0 (65.3-84.7) 75.0 (54.2-95.8) 1.0 0.82 (0.68-0.97)
10 Repeats 3 cycles of compressions 80.0 (71.0-89.0) 100.0 0.03 0.33 (0.12-0.54)
11 Opens airway 66.3 (55.7-76.8) 80.0 (60.8-99.2) 0.23 0.53 (0.34-0.73)
12 Gives 2 breaths between the compressions cycles 61.3 (50.3-72.2) 65.0 (42.1-87.9) 0.78 0.81 (0.67-0.94)
13 Locates CPR hand position for each cycle 91.3 (84.9-97.6) 100.0 0.17 0.64 (0.32-0.97)
  1. * Two-group proportion Z-test at a two-sided significance level of 0.05.