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Table 1 Distinguishing TRALI from TACO and ARDS

From: Critical care considerations in the management of the trauma patient following initial resuscitation

Finding TRALI ARDS TACO
Vital signs May be febrile; hypotension more common than hypertension Variable Typically normothermic; hypertension
Clinical examination Crackles Crackles Crackles, S3, jugular venous distension
ECHO findings Normal to slightly decreased ventricular function; no evidence of left atrial hypertension Normal to slightly decreased ventricular function; no evidence of left atrial hypertension Decreased ejection fraction
Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure < 18 mmHg <18 mmHg > 18mmHg
Fluid balance Hyper-, hypo-, or normovolemic Hyper-, hypo-, or normovolemic Hypervolemic
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level < 200 pg/mL < 200 pg/mL > 1200 pg/mL
White blood cell count Typically decreased; may be transient Variable Usually unchanged from baseline
Leukocyte antibodies Donor leukocyte antibodies present; crossmatch incompatibility between donor and recipient Donor leukocyte antibodies may or may not be present Donor leukocyte antibodies may or may not be present
PaO2/FiO2 gradient ≤ 300 ≤ 200 Variable