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Table 3 Reported clinical findings and symptoms important for HISS classification at the clinical examination before CT

From: Evaluation of the Scandinavian guidelines for head injuries based on a consecutive series with computed tomography from a Norwegian university hospital

Clinical findings and symptoms at presentation Minimal injury Mild injury Moderate injury Missing data or not classifiable Overall
  N = 275 N = 525 N = 160 N = 365 N = 1325
Glasgow Coma Scale score      
 15 271 (98.5%) 379 (72.2%) 64 (40.0%) 129 (35.3%) 843 (63.6%)
 14 N/A 140 (26.7%) 15 (9.4%) 24 (6.6%) 179 (13.5%)
 9-13 N/A N/A 68 (42.5%) 13 (3.6%) 81 (6.1%)
 Intubated/sedated 2 (0.7%) 2 (0.4%) 7 (4.4%) 4 (1.1%) 15 (1.1%)
 Missing data 2 (0.7%) 4 (0.8%) 6 (3.8%) 195 (53.4%) 207 (15.6%)
Loss of consciousness (LOC)?      
 No 236 (85.8%) 64 (12.2%) 28 (17.5%) 69 (18.9%) 397 (30.0%)
 Yes N/A 306 (58.3%) 70 (43.8%) 122 (33.4%) 499 (37.7%)
   <5 minutes N/A 243 (46.3%) 23 (14.4%) 62 (17.0%) 329 (24.8%)
   ≥5 minutes N/A N/A 38 (23.8%) 15 (4.1%) 56 (4.2%)
 Unknown length of LOC Ω N/A 63 (12.0%) 9 (5.6%) 45 (12.3%) 114 (8.6%)
 Unknown if LOC Ω 35 (12.7%) 148 (28.2%) 39 (24.4%) 58 (15.9%) 280 (21.1%)
 Missing data 4 (1.5%) 7 (1.3%) 23 (14.4%) 116 (31.8%) 149 (11.2%)
Posttraumatic amnesia?      
 No, n (%) 254 (92.4%) 99 (18.9%) 33 (20.6%) 66 (18.1%) 452 (34.1%)
 Yes, n (%) 0 (0%) 394 (75.1%) 62 (38.8%) 98 (26.8%) 555 (41.9%)
 Impossible to assess 16 (5.8%) 22 (0.4%) 32 (20.0%) 38 (10.4%) 107 (8.1%)
 Missing data 5 (1.8%) 10 (1.9%) 33 (20.6%) 163 (44.7%) 211 (15.9%)
Assumed focal neurologic deficits?      
 No 260 (94.5%) 492 (93.7%) 73 (45.6%) 256 (70.1%) 1081 (81.6%)
 Yes 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 57 (35.6%) 10 (2.7%) 67 (5.1%)
 Impossible to assess 6 (2.2%) 18 (3.4%) 17 (10.6%) 18 (4.9%) 59 (4.5%)
 Missing data 9 (3.3%) 15 (2.9%) 13 (8.1%) 81 (22.2%) 118 (8.9%)
  1. Ω Loss of consciousness, or duration was impossible to assess due to lack of witnesses and uncertain anamnestic information.