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Table 1 Studies on long term survival in children after drowning accident

From: Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children

Study Design Patient population Patients (N) Age Patient selection Follow up period Assessment tool Conclusion
Pearn 1977[40] Prospective 1971-75 54 Not reported Freshwater immersion accidents in which consciousness was lost Median 23 months (3–60 months) Neurological and neuropsychological testing 95% of children survived neurologically normal
Kruus et al. 1979[10] Prospective 1971-76 30 Median 4 years Drowned children of whom 28/30 had been resuscitated Median 22 months (6–58 months) Neurological and neuropsychological testing of 17 survivors 13 children with slight neurological deficit and 4 with severe deficit
Bell et al. 1984[6] Prospective 1979-83 49 8-154 months Drowned children who had been resuscitated by EMS personnel 8-40 months Neurological and neuropsychological testing of 7 apparently intact survivors Long-term survivors had nearly normal levels of cognitive function
Bratton et al. 1994[11] Retrospective 1986-91 44 Median 28 months (8 mo-14 yrs) Children admitted to PICU after warm drowning, 43/44 received CPR at the scene Minimum of 6 months A discussion with child’s physician or chart review 17/44 (39%) had normal functioning or mild neurological deficit
Suominen et al 1997[8] Retrospective 1985-94 48 Median 3.7 years (0.8-15.0 years) Drowned children who had received ALS at the scene 1 year Chart review with POPC 29/48 (60%) had normal functioning or mild neurological deficit
Hughes et al. 2002[18] Case report 1986 1 2.5 years Neuropsychological recovery after 66 min submersion, CPR and CPB 12 years Neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging Cognitive difficulties and global memory impairment in follow-up
Suominen et al. 2010[33] Retrospective 1994-2008 9 Median 3.7 years (0.8-15.0 years) Hypothermic drowning victims treated with CPB 3 years Neurological and neuropsychological testing One survived with mild to moderate neurological deficit
Suominen et al.2011[41] Questionnaire 29 Median 3.0 (range 1.2-15.7) years Drowned children who had been resuscitated either bystanders and/or EMS personnel Median 10.3 years (1.8-21.8 years) Mailed HRQoL questionnare Good HRQoL in most of the long term survivors
  1. Abbreviations: CPR, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ALS, advanced life support; POPC, Paediatric Overall Performance Category Scale; HRQoL, Health-related quality of life.