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Table 2 A continuum of treatment options with at times inconsistent evidence (see text for references)

From: Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in the injured patient

Proven benefit Suggested benefit in select patients Indeterminate benefit Suggested as not harmful No benefit
Low tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg predicted body weight Fluid restriction Recruitment maneuvers Higher PEEP Surfactant
PEEP ≥ 5 cm H2O Incentive spirometry High-frequency oscillatory ventilation   Prostaglandin E1
Plateau pressures ≤ 30 cm H2O Patient-initiated positive airway pressure therapy Airway pressure release ventilation   N-acetylcysteine
  Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation Steroids   
  Early use of neuromuscular blocking agents    
  Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation    
  Rib fracture fixation    
  Prone positioning