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Table 1 Patient Characteristics

From: Emergency department length of stay for patients requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective observational study

  MV only (n = 484) NIV only (n = 118) Both (n = 16)
Age, median (IQR) 58 (41–76) 76 (64–84) 72 (62–81)
Male gender 307 (63.4) 64 (54.2) 8 (50.0)
CTAS codesa    
1 326 (67.4) 22 (18.6) 5 (31.3)
2 139 (28.7) 87 (73.7) 11 (68.8)
3 19 (3.9) 7 (5.9)
Not reported 2 (1.7)
Reason for mechanical ventilation    
Trauma with head injury 123 (25.4) 2 (1.7)
Primary neurologic disorder 80 (16.5) 2 (1.7) 1 (6.3)
Cardiac/respiratory arrest 61 (12.6) 1 (6.3)
Trauma (not including head) 43 (8.9)
Overdose 40 (8.3) 1 (0.8)
Pneumonia 34 (7.0) 12 (10.2) 2 (12.5)
Acute respiratory failureb 34 (7.0) 19 (16.1) 1 (6.3)
Heart failure 12 (2.5) 45 (38.1) 4 (25.0)
Sepsis and septic shock 29 (6.0) 2 (12.5)
COPD exacerbation 7 (1.4) 35 (29.7) 4 (25.0)
NMD 4 (0.8) 1 (6.3)
Asthma 1 (0.2) 2 (1.7)
Other 16 (3.3)
  1. All values are n (%) unless indicated.
  2. CTAS = Canadian triage and acuity scale, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, NMD = neuromuscular disease, MV = mechanical ventilation (invasive), NIV = non-invasive ventilation.
  3. aCTAS score of 1 represents a patient requiring immediate assessment and intervention, CTAS 2 patients have a maximal wait time for assessment by a physician of 15 min, and patients triaged as CTAS 3 require assessment within 30 min.[11].
  4. bExcludes patients with pneumonia, COPD exacerbation and asthma.