ROTEM-guided treatment algorithm: managing trauma-induced coagulopathy and diffuse microvascular bleeding (AUVA Trauma Hospital, Salzburg, Austria). The algorithm represents standard operating procedure for ROTEM-guided haemostatic therapy upon admission of trauma patients to the emergency room. In parentheses: haemostatic agents suggested for use in clinics where coagulation factor concentrates are not available. * For patients who are unconscious or known to be taking platelet inhibitor medication, Multiplate tests (adenosine diphosphate [ADP] test, arachidonic acid [ASPI] test, and thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 [TRAP] test) are also performed. § If decreased ATIII is suspected or known, consider co-administration of ATIII. † Any major improvement in APTEM parameters compared to corresponding EXTEM parameters may be interpreted as a sign of hyperfibrinolysis. ‡ Only for patients not receiving TXA at an earlier stage of the algorithm. Traumatic brain injury: platelet count 80,000-100,000/μl. Normal values: EXTEM/APTEM coagulation time (CT): 38-79 seconds; EXTEM/APTEM clot amplitude at 10 minutes (CA10): 43-65 mm; EXTEM/APTEM maximum lysis (ML) < 15%; FIBTEM CA10: 7-23 mm; INTEM CT: 100-240 seconds. CA10, clot amplitude at 10 minutes; BGA, blood gas analysis; BW, body weight; Ca, calcium; CT, clotting time; FFP, fresh frozen plasma; ISS, injury severity score; MCF, maximum clot firmness; ML, maximum lysis; PCC, prothrombin complex concentrate; TXA, tranexamic acid.