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Table 1 Patient characteristics and confounding factors

From: The effect of active warming in prehospital trauma care during road and air ambulance transportation - a clinical randomized trial

  Passive warming (n = 22) Active warming (n = 26)
Patient characteristics   
   Gender (male/female) 9/13 10/16
   Age (years) 45 (34 - 55) 43 (36 - 50)
   Body Mass Index 25.0 (22.8 - 27.3) 25.4 (23.6 - 27.3)
Environment   
   Outdoor temperature (°C) -6 (-9 - -2) -3 (-6 - -1)
   Outdoor wind speed (m/s) 2 (1 - 3) 2 (1 - 4)
   Interior unit temperature (°C) 20 (19 - 21) 20 (19 - 21)
   Cold exposure (min) 64 (41 - 88) 81 (61 - 101)
   Time to 2nd measurement (min) 24 (21 - 28) 27 (24 - 29)
   Total transportation (min) 33 (25 - 41) 37 (25 - 49)
   Clothing (light/medium/heavy) 5/6/9 4/9/13
   Clothing (dry/moist/wet) 13/2/4 21/3/1
Treatment during transport   
   No. of blankets 2.7 (2.2 - 3.2) 2.3 (1.9 - 2.7)
   Undress (none/partial/total) 12/8/2 14/10/1
   Whole body fixation (yes/no) 8/13 8/17
   Intravenous fluids (ml) 91 (31 - 151) 50 (0 - 107)
   Intravenous opioids (yes/no) 10/12 14/12
   Intravenous sedatives (yes/no) 2/20 5/21
  1. Values are mean (95% confidence interval) or number of patients. The internal drop-out of any variable was ≤ 3 patients and there are no significant differences between groups (p < 0.05).