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Table 2 Appraisal of scientific evidence according to GRADE - Association between vital signs/chief complaints and acute mortality after arrival at the emergency department.

From: Emergency Department Triage Scales and Their Components: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Evidence

Effect measure (endpoint) No. Patients (no. Studies) Reference Effect (OR, odds ratio*) Scientific evidence Comments
Respiratory rate predicts 30-day mortality 11 751
1 study [22]
1.9 Insufficient
Only one study (-1)
Oxygen saturation predicts 48-hour mortality or in-hospital mortality 17 334
2 studies [22, 23]
1.4
1.7
Limited
 
Pulse predicts 30-day mortality 11 751
1 study [22]
1.7 Insufficient
Only one study (-1)
Level of consciousness predicts 48-hour mortality or in-hospital mortality 18 320
3 studies [2224]
2.1
1.7
11.7
Limited
 
Age predicts 30-day mortality 28 446
4 studies [2225]
1.7
1.3
2.6
1.1
Moderate
Upgrading due to effect size and dose-response effect (+1)
  1. All studies are observational.
  2. * OR indicates each step of change in RAPS (Rapid Acute Physiology Score) or REMS (Rapid Emergency Medicine Score).