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Table 2 Development data from the studies

From: Risk scoring systems for adults admitted to the emergency department: a systematic review

Scoring System Population Exclusion criteria Endpoint(s) Number of endpoints met Sex Statistic method Potential maximum population (before exclusion) Sample-size (% of potential maximum population) Number of parameters analyzed
REMS[21] Patients admitted to a non-surgical emergency department Cardiac arrest with unsuccessful resuscitation, more than one vital sign missing In-hospital mortality 285 (2.4%) 51.6% female Multivariate regression analysis 12,006 11,751 (97.9%) 8
RAPS[17] Patients transported to a university hospital by helicopter Age younger than 11 years, missing values 24 hours mortality 36 (12.7%) NS Multivariate regression analysis 283 283 (100%) 4
GS[18] Patients transported to an emergency department by ambulance Trauma, psychiatric disease, dead on arrival, discharged from the ED, outcome not available at follow-up, not admitted due to specified disease In-hospital mortality 711 (12.7%) 42.3% female Regression analysis 17,950 5,583 (31.1%) 31
HOTEL[15] Patients admitted to a medical admission unit Age younger than 14, death < 15 minutes from arrival, missing values Death within 15 minutes to 24 hours after arrival 592 (0.6%) NS Logistic regression 11,124 10,2903 (92.5%) 11
SCS[14] Patients admitted to a medical admission unit Age younger than 14 30 days mortality 316 (4.7%) 47.5% female Logistic regression 11,124 9,9644 (89.6%) 29
WPS[20] Patients admitted to an emergency care unit None In-hospital mortality 270 (8.5%) 52% female Logistic regression 4,384 3,184 (72.6%) 6
RLD[13] Patients discharged from medical department Age below 16 at admission In-hospital mortality NS5 NS Logistic regression 17,417 16,73776 (96.1%) 7
TTS[16] Patients admitted to a medical admission unit Age below 16, admission directly to the ICU In-hospital mortality 835 (8.4%) 52.3% female Comparison using AUROC 10,051 9,987 (99.4%) 87
EWS[19] Patients admitted to a medical admission unit None In-hospital mortality, length of stay, admission to ICU or CCU 29 combined (12.8%), 8 dead (3.5%) 48.5% female Logistic regression 225 225 (100%) 6
ALT[12] Patients in a medical emergency department No blood test drawn Mortality while admitted to a medical department 573 (5.6%) 48.6% female Logistic regression 23,397 10,308 (44.1%) 27
  1. NS = not specified
  2. 1 saturation only available for 51.4% of the patients
  3. 2 40 in the development cohort
  4. 3 sample-size divided for validation purposes, 6,947 used for development
  5. 4 sample-size divided for validation purposes, 6,736 used for development
  6. 5 only specified for validation cohorts
  7. 6 sample-size divided for validation purposes, 9,497 used for development
  8. 7 either AVPU or GCS. Urine production was set to normal